Please note: Our position statements are in the process of being reviewed internally. Additional positions will be added to this page as they complete the review process.
As Canada’s federation of SPCAs and humane societies, Humane Canada drives positive, progressive change to end animal cruelty, improve animal protection and promote the humane treatment of all animals. We are the convener and representative of the largest animal welfare community in Canada, advancing the welfare of animals with a strong national voice by promoting animal welfare interests and concerns to government, policy makers, industry and the public.
- Humane Canada believes that each animal possesses intrinsic value, remarkable complexity and inherent dignity and, as such, is deserving of respect and moral concern.
- Humane Canada advocates universal humane treatment, care and protection of all animals.
- Humane Canada insists that all animals used by humans be provided with high levels of care to ensure their health, comfort and behavioural needs.
- Humane Canada advocates habitat protection and enhancement for the well-being of animals in the wild.
HUMANENESS TOWARDS ANIMALS
Humaneness means treatment of an animal in a manner that ensures its welfare and well-being in circumstances where a human is or should be exercising care, custody, control or use of an animal. A person responsible for an animal must provide living conditions, necessities of life and care suitable to the circumstances and in accordance with the normal psychological and physical needs of the animal.
Humane treatment of an animal precludes cruelty and involves every possible effort to avoid or reduce pain, suffering or injury.
A humane death occurs when an animal is killed in a manner whereby it dies instantly without panic or pain or whereby it is rendered instantly unconscious with inevitable subsidence into death without regaining consciousness.
Humaneness involves sensitivity toward all life in compliance with ethical, moral and legal principles. Human members of the animal kingdom have the responsibility to be humane in the ways they act or fail to act with respect to other animals. Humans who have care, custody, control or use of animals must be diligent in exercising this responsibility.
Humane Canada has established detailed position statements on the following animal welfare issues:
Animals in Entertainment
1. Animals Used in Entertainment or Displays
Humane Canada is opposed to the use of animals in all forms of entertainment or displays which may cause them to suffer. We believe, in particular, that animals performing or on display in a travelling environment will be deprived of a normal existence and may lack proper attention to their physical, social, and psychological needs. Humane Canada contends that the following are detrimental to the well-being of animals:
- travel or confinement that impairs the animals’ physical, psychological and social needs;
- the use of abusive, cruel or stressful training techniques, devices or agents employed to cause the animals to perform;
- close confinement, the lack of exercise and other physical requirements, the inability to express natural behaviours and lack of appropriate socialization;
- the administration of any drug for non-therapeutic purposes in order to alter the performance or behaviour of the animals.
2. Animals Which are Wild by Nature Used in Entertainment
Humane Canada is opposed to the use of animals, wild by nature, in all forms of entertainment. We believe that wild animals maintained in a travelling environment for entertainment purposes will be deprived of a normal existence and will lack proper attention to their physical, social and psychological needs.
Humane Canada is also opposed to:
- the further capture and captive breeding of wild animals for entertainment purposes;
- travel for entertainment purposes because it fails to provide for the animals’ physical, psychological and social needs;
- the use of abusive, cruel or stressful training techniques, devices or agents employed to cause these animals to perform;
- close confinement, the lack of exercise and other physical requirements, the inability to express natural behaviours and lack of appropriate socialization.
Humane Canada is opposed in principle to rodeo and is working towards the ultimate abolition of this activity. We recognize that rodeos continue to be a regional tradition in some parts of Canada and believe animal suffering can best be reduced and ended by targeting specific rodeo events for elimination.
Humane Canada will actively pursue every means in its power to reduce and end suffering of animals used in rodeo events:
- by opposing additions to existing rodeos of new events that are likely to cause pain, suffering or injury to animals;
- by opposing further proliferation of rodeos and rodeo events into regions where they are presently not held and/or where they are not a tradition;
- by opposing those events that involve the throwing with ropes of any animal;
- by opposing events that involve wrestling or fighting with any animal;
- by opposing the use on any rodeo animal of any device likely to cause pain, suffering, or injury, and that is solely employed to alter the animal’s natural behaviour or performance;
- by opposing the continuance to completion of any event once an animal has been injured in the course of the event (e.g., animals injured during chuckwagon races).
4. Wild Animals in Captivity
Humane Canada supports only those zoos or wildlife enclosures which adhere to the principle that the needs and welfare of the animals are of primary importance, must take precedence over consideration for human visitors and should not be compromised by economic factors. Housing and management must meet the health, emotional and behavioural needs of each species of animal. Therefore, all animals must be provided with living areas of exceptionally high quality, which closely resemble their natural habitat, where they may live reasonably natural lives.
5. Blood Spectacles
Humane Canada is opposed to the use of animals in blood sports such as bullfighting, dog fighting, cockfighting and similar spectacles. Humane Canada is opposed to any hunting of animals with the help of hounds or dogs to harry the animals. This includes fox hunting, coon hunting, deer hunting and the hunting of hares and rabbits.
6. Greyhound Racing
Humane Canada is opposed to the training of greyhound dogs for racing because of practices such as the use of live rabbit lures, negative reinforcement procedures and the destruction of greyhounds who are not potentially successful competitors.
7. Horse Racing
Humane Canada is opposed to drugs being administered with a view to altering the performance of a horse and to any races where unreasonable or excessive demands upon the horse cause distress or suffering (e.g., immature or unfit animals). Humane Canada is also opposed to excessive use of the whip.
8. Horse Shows and Eventing
Humane Canada is concerned that competitive horsemanship events, where success can lead to money or fame, may often be grossly overtaxing to horses.
Humane Canada is opposed to the following:
- the use of training methods which cause distress or suffering;
- the use of drugs to alter a horse’s performance, or to enable it to compete;
- the inclusion in a competition of obstacles that are of unreasonable difficulty;
- the use of any equipment, such as whips or spurs, in such a manner as to cause distress or suffering.
9. Bloodless Bullfighting
Humane Canada is opposed to bloodless bullfighting, believing that bloodless bullfighting encourages disrespect for animals, and may be detrimental to the physical and psychological well-being of the animals.
Bloodless or Portuguese-style bullfighting involves the use of darts with blunt points covered with velcro that adhere to a mat fitted on the animal’s back. Bloodless bullfighting is not intended to involve killing or the deliberate infliction of serious physical harm to the animals. However, the bull is prepared for the exhibition by using techniques such as harassment or an electric prod to provoke the animal. In some cases, horses are used in the bullfight.
Bloodless bullfighting is an event common in Portugal and has been introduced to Canada. It involves taunting and harassing the animals, causing them psychological stress and possible physical harm. Bloodless bullfighting may subject the animals to distress, harassment and pain, both in training and in the actual fight, to encourage a higher level of aggression in the bulls.
Events such as animal exhibitions and publicity stunts are susceptible to inhumane treatment of the animals involved. The sponsors, participants and organizers must assume the responsibility to ensure humane treatment of the animals.
Animals as Prizes and Gifts
Humane Canada believes that the acquisition of an animal should be a deliberate and conscious decision as this impacts the immediate and future well-being of the animal. Humane Canada is therefore opposed to the awarding of any live animal as a prize or unsolicited present.
There are some competitions, raffles and other fundraising initiatives that give away animals as prizes. Examples of animals given as prizes include pigs at a pig scramble and bulls at agricultural shows.
Humane Canada is opposed to awarding animals as prizes since this makes a person responsible for an animal without due preparation or planning for the care of the animal. Careful planning and consideration must be made prior to acquiring an animal and this should always be accompanied by long term commitment.
Gifting a pet may be appropriate if it has been ensured that the recipient of the gift or the ultimate caregiver (for example, a parent) has a desire for the animal, clearly understands the responsibility involved in caring for the animal and is committed and able to do so in the long-term. Animals should come from ethical and trusted sources (see position statement on responsible sourcing of companion animals).
Animals in Science (Research, Testing and Teaching)
Humane Canada is opposed to the use of animals in research, testing and teaching that jeopardizes their physical, mental or emotional well-being. Humane Canada supports and encourages the development of alternatives to animal methods and use with the goal of ending scientific activities that compromise animals’ physical or psychological welfare.
Humane Canada believes that the welfare of animals used in scientific activities should be subject to strict public oversight, regardless of whether the institution conducting the research, testing or teaching is public or private. This oversight should include transparent public reporting of numbers of animals used, types of uses, welfare impacts on the animals, and inspection results.
Humane Canada supports and advocates the development of federal legislation governing the welfare of animals used in science, including detailed standards for the housing, care and use of animals, as well as a strong enforcement scheme that includes third party verification. Individual activities should be subject to ethical review and regular post-approval monitoring.
Humane Canada believes a robust ethical framework must be developed and applied to guide decisions about what types of scientific animal use are acceptable. Humane Canada supports a federal ban on animal testing for cosmetics.
While animals are still being used, their welfare must be a priority. Humane Canada insists that all animals be treated with respect and compassion, and protected from suffering – including fear, pain, distress and lasting harm – throughout all stages of life, including their death.
Humane Canada therefore considers acceptable only those environments, housing, procedures and practices for handling and care that:
- meet animals’ physical and psychological needs;
- provide for the Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare; and
- provide animals with a good quality of life, including by providing opportunities for them to enjoy positive experiences and express natural behaviours that promote their welfare.
Humane Canada supports the Five Domains Model for Assessing Animal Welfare.1
Humane Canada strongly advocates the principle of the “Three Rs”:
- Replace or avoid the use of animals, wherever possible;
- Reduce the number of animals used to the minimum required to obtain sufficient data, without compromising welfare;
- Refine husbandry and procedures to minimize the suffering and enhance the welfare of those animals used.
Humane Canada is opposed to the following activities for research, testing or teaching:
- The mandatory surrender of animals from pound facilities;
- Animal experiments that involve unnecessary duplication or for which non-animal alternatives have already been developed.
Humane Canada is opposed to the acquisition of animals from the wild as well as the purpose-breeding of wild species. Wild animals are not genetically or behaviourally adapted to human interaction, and the use of wild species in research that forces such interactions and/or keeps them in captivity necessarily jeopardizes their well-being. Humane Canada also opposes wildlife field work that is not purely observational and that causes fear, pain, distress or lasting harm.
Appropriate pain control and prompt medical treatment must be provided by trained professionals to minimize suffering and discomfort; it is unacceptable to use muscle relaxants or paralytics alone where pain control is indicated. When symptoms do not respond to medical treatment or when animals are suffering from untreatable conditions, they must be euthanized by a trained professional without delay. Appropriate training should be provided to all persons handling animals. Veterinarians play an important role in ensuring the physical and behavioural well-being of animals in science.
Humane Canada believes that ending the life of an animal no longer being used in science, even when using a method not intended to involve pain or distress, is a harm to that animal. Therefore, animals no longer required should be considered for retirement, rehoming, or release into an ecologically suitable environment (following professional assessment of the impact on the animal and the environment, and pursuant to applicable guidance and legislation), rather than being killed. Humane Canada encourages the development of retirement programs.
Animals in Transit
Humane Canada recognizes that hundreds of millions of animals are transported within Canada each year. The vast majority of these animals are ultimately used for human consumption, while others are used for research, sport, entertainment and companionship. These animals are transported by aircraft, marine vessels or land carriers.
In order to protect the welfare of animals in transit, Humane Canada advocates adherence to the following principles:
- animals shall have priority over merchandise;
- all persons accepting shipping or carrying of live animals shall be fully familiar with all packing and care-giving requirements for all animals in their care;
- no animal shall be transported in a way that is likely to cause suffering;
- animals in transit shall be protected from extreme fluctuations in environment, such as heat or cold;
- animals shall be provided with sufficient ventilation but shall not be exposed to strong drafts;
- only animals in good health shall be transported (except when transport is necessary to provide the animals with veterinary treatment);
- no animals obviously in advanced stages of pregnancy, or animals which have recently given birth, shall be transported (except when transport is necessary to provide the animals with veterinary treatment);
- all animals shall be transported in vehicles and/or containers and conditions appropriate to their species;
- animals of different species shall not be transported in the same container;
- unless animals of the same species are known to be compatible with other animals, they shall not be transported in the same container;
- sedation shall only be administered under exceptional circumstances and shall be carried out by an authorized, qualified veterinarian;
- animals which become sick or injured during transport shall receive veterinary treatment as soon as possible; if necessary, they shall be euthanized or humanely killed;
- when feasible, sick or dead animals shall be removed from containers carrying groups of animals;
- animals shall not be transported along with substances dangerous to their health;
- all journeys shall be as short as possible in terms of time and distance traveled;
- advance transit planning and proper labelling of vehicles and containers are essential.
Humane Canada supports animal transport regulations (CITES, IATA, etc.) which address the needs of animals in transit and advocates special training and licencing for professional handlers and drivers of livestock vehicles.
Humane Canada is opposed to the import/export of live food animals for fattening or slaughter and urges the adoption of a carcass-only trade.
Community Animal Services
Humane Canada believes that it is the responsibility of every Canadian community to put in place animal services for the benefit of animals and residents, recognizing the diversity in communities across the country. Cooperation at the community level is important to develop solutions that reflect local issues and concerns. The services themselves may be delivered directly by a municipal government or through contracted services by a local humane society or SPCA, or a private third party. Animal services must be adequately publicly funded and have a primary mandate that is the promotion of animal welfare and the harmonious cohabitation of residents and animals. Humane Canada believes animal services must be responsible, ethical and focused on ensuring animal welfare, providing high quality care to animals, providing resources to help owners meet the needs of their companion animals and curbing companion animal overpopulation through humane, preventive/proactive programs, such as Trap–Neuter–Return (TNR) or Shelter–Neuter–Return programs for community cats, low cost spay/neuter services and public education. Humane Canada supports animal services shifting to the community-based sheltering model to focus on improving animal welfare and maintaining the human-animal bond through approaches such as reducing animal intake in shelters and housing most pets in homes. Permanent identification, such as a microchip, is a key tool to assist in animal services, as it supports prompt returns of lost animals thereby reducing intake or shelter stays, and it aids in tracking dogs who display aggression, for public safety purposes. A list of resources is included below as examples of best practices in animal sheltering and community-based services. The resources listed allow communities to phase-in implementation of different practices, beginning with those that are the best fit.
*Note* The Canadian Shelter Standards were adapted from the first edition of the Guidelines for Standards of Care in Animal Shelters to reflect the Canadian context. The Second Edition of the Guidelines was released in December, 2022, and while it has not yet been adapted for Canadian organizations, it holds critical updates and is included here as a highly recommended resource.
Resource Library, maintained jointly by the Koret Shelter Medicine Program at UC Davis and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Shelter Medicine Program
Animal Control Intake of Healthy Wildlife – National Animal Care & Control Association
Please refer to the Humane Canada position statements on Community Cats and Companion Animal Overpopulation.
Community Cats (Free-roaming abandoned and feral cats)
Humane Canada encourages and supports evidence-based initiatives to address the issues associated with community cats—to reduce unowned cat numbers, improve the welfare of the cats themselves, and minimize any potential public health risks. Humane Canada believes that well-managed trap, neuter, and return (TNR) programs are an important strategy in the management of community cats. Managed cat colonies should not be located in wildlife refuges or breeding areas, or near habitats of threatened or endangered species. Humane Canada encourages continued research into the dynamics of cat populations and TNR programs.
Community cats include unowned neighbourhood and barn cats, strays which were previously owned but are now lost or abandoned, and feral cats. Feral cats are descended from domestic animals that have been forced to fend for themselves and are not sufficiently socialized to be handled by people. As such, their care is society’s responsibility.
Humane Canada recognizes that cats (particularly females) will live in groups (colonies) where resources are available. Thus, colonies may be comprised of both feral and more-or-less socialized cats. Given the poor quality of life that unsterilized (male and female) colony cats typically lead, as well as broader concerns about environmental impacts and potential public health risks, the goal of colony cat management programs should be to gradually eliminate cat colonies by sterilizing (spaying and neutering) a high proportion of the colony and “aging out” their members. In this scenario, colonies will be maintained in a healthy state and prevented from reproducing, leading to the eventual attrition of members.
Humane Canada supports a multi-faceted approach to dealing with community cats, including regular colony monitoring; trap, spay/neuter, vaccinate and release; removal of suitable cats and kittens for rehabilitation and adoption; permanent and visible identification of all cats; and, where appropriate, monitoring for disease and the euthanasia of sick animals whose health is deemed by a veterinarian to be unrecoverable or whose illness poses jeopardy to other cats.
Based on the advice of shelter medicine specialists, it is not recommended that TNR programs and shelters routinely test healthy cats for the retroviruses feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In addition to low rates of disease, low likelihood of transmission between adult cats, and poor survival of the virus in the environment, the cost of testing is substantial. Moreover, the chance of a false positive result increases when testing a healthy cat. FeLV/FIV tests are more useful when used on cats with clinical signs consistent with FeLV or FIV, in which case the test results are more reliable. [For further explanation, please click here.
Humane Canada believes it is essential to address the underlying reasons for the existence of cat colonies. The incidence of abandoned and feral cats can be reduced through ongoing public awareness and education initiatives that emphasize, among other things, the importance of sterilization and the consequences of allowing cats to roam freely.
Companion Animal Overpopulation
As a result of overpopulation, many companion animals suffer each year in Canada. The vision of Humane Canada is that every companion animal is part of a family or community where they are valued and provided with knowledgeable care that meets their physical and behavioural needs. Humane Canada supports the use of multi-faceted strategies to identify and address the root causes of companion animal overpopulation, including spaying and neutering cats, dogs and rabbits at an early age, as appropriate, by licensed veterinarians.
Humane Canada promotes the use of best shelter management practices, including those for managing the shelter population size, such as feline Shelter-Neuter-Return (SNR). Such practices entail accepting an animal into the shelter only when resources and housing capacity allow for care in a manner that is conducive to a positive outcome for that animal. Humane Canada recognizes that situations will arise where some shelters must temporarily stretch their resources and capacity for care. Shelters in such situations must endeavour to responsibly manage resources to humanely care for the animals in their facility, following best practices. Shelters that are obligated to accept animals must make all reasonable efforts to return the population to an acceptable size as soon as possible.
Promoting responsible companion animal guardianship and the sourcing of companion animals through adoption or a responsible breeder are effective ways of addressing pet overpopulation and reducing the burden on organizations that rehome companion animals. At the same time it’s crucial to prevent irresponsible breeding (see position statement on Sources for Acquiring a Pet).
Humane Canada believes it is vital for shelters, rescue groups, TNR groups, municipal animal control services, community leaders, and citizens to work together to address companion animal overpopulation. Sheltering organizations play an important role in providing care for animals in their communities. Humane Canada supports these groups and joins them in promoting companion animal adoption and responsible pet ownership, which includes early-age spay/neuter, as appropriate; permanent identification; lifetime veterinary care; appropriate nutrition, grooming, and shelter; adequate physical exercise and human/animal socialization; and overall recognition and meeting of the animals’ physical and behavioural needs.
When shelters are at risk of overcrowding from taking in too many unwanted and homeless animals, the welfare of all animals in a facility may be threatened due to stress, which can result in suppressed immune systems and increased risk of disease transmission. However, shelters can apply best management practices to ensure that animals are accepted to the shelter only when permitted by the shelter’s human, financial, and physical resources, including a housing capacity that meets the Canadian Standards of Care in Animal Shelters. Organizations can provide ongoing support to members of their community with resources regarding animal behaviour and training, alternatives to surrendering animals to a shelter, access to veterinary care, Trap-Neuter-Return programs, and other companion
animal welfare topics.
The indiscriminate breeding of companion animals leads to overpopulation: too many animals and not enough homes. Without community education and support, the absence of animal sheltering services can lead to abandonment. Abandoned companion animals without shelter and human care can suffer from dehydration, starvation, exposure to injurious heat or cold, disease, parasites, wildlife predation,
and many other conditions to which they are not habituated, and may be subject to abuse from the human population. Abandoned companion animals also have impacts on other species.
Compounds for the Training and Trialing of Hunting Dogs
Humane Canada is opposed to compounds for the training and trialing of hunting dogs because they cause significant stress, injury and sometimes death to the prey and dogs.
Definition of compounds for the training and trialing of hunting dogs:
Fenced compounds are stocked with wildlife for the purpose of training or trialing hunting dogs. The wildlife species most often used are coyote, fox and rabbit.
Humane Canada is opposed to any hunting of animals with the help of dogs to harry captive animals.
Humane Canada is concerned that the wild animals, confined to the compound with no way of escape, are subjected to extreme stress, injury and sometimes death caused when chased by dogs.
Humane Canada is concerned that captive-bred wild animals are used to stock these compounds. Such animals have reduced flight response and instincts with which to defend themselves.
Humane Canada is concerned that there is no way for animals to escape from these compounds.
Humane Canada opposes laws banning individual breeds. Furthermore, Humane Canada believes that the most effective way to address public safety concerns is for humane organizations, other animal stakeholder organizations, provincial governments and municipalities to work together on multi-faceted strategies that identify and address dangerous dogs of all breeds. Humane Canada recognizes that aggression by dogs against people and other animals may be a threat to public safety, and that this issue must be addressed if we are to create humane and responsible societies where people and dogs co-exist and enrich each other’s lives.
Owners of all breeds of dog must understand that any dog can bite, depending on the circumstances. In particular, close supervision is essential when children are in the presence of a dog.
There are many contributing factors to most dog bite incidents, including a genetic propensity to aggression, inadequate or inappropriate socialization and training, health or behavioural issues, inadequate supervision and/or control of the dog, and inadequate recognition of behavioural stress in dogs.
Apart from the issues noted above, consistent and fair enforcement of laws banning specific breeds is difficult due to the challenge of reliably identifying the breed or breed mix. Breed specific legislation cannot take into account the issue of developing or newly introduced breeds or breed mixes. In any event, determination of a dog’s breed or breed mix is not necessarily indicative or determinative of an
individual dog’s temperament or propensity to aggression. Owners who choose breeds or mixes of breeds that have been historically used for guarding, fighting or chasing prey must understand and
appropriately manage the potential risks associated with these dogs.
Humane Canada supports legislation and programs that encourage informed, responsible dog ownership including spay/neuter, licensing, visible and permanent identification, animal control laws, socialization and humane training, and evaluation by certified specialists for dogs reported as dangerous. Humane Canada believes dog owners should know the requirements of the municipal bylaws to which they are subject and should be held accountable for any harm or damage their pets do to people, property or other animals.
Humane Canada accepts that euthanasia is considered when an animal is in significant distress or poses a serious public or animal health or safety concern. Humane Canada also acknowledges that euthanasia decisions are considered when an animal is suffering from mental or physical illness or behavioural problems that cannot be treated in the shelter and no other viable treatment options exist.
No matter the reason for euthanasia, Humane Canada only supports the use of humane methods of euthanasia carried out by trained personnel to ensure the animal experiences the least possible pain and distress. (See also Companion Animal Overpopulation position statement.)
Farmed Animal Welfare
Humane Canada believes that at every step of their lives – from birth to death – farmed animals must be treated with respect and compassion and must be protected from both physical and psychological suffering. Humane Canada therefore considers acceptable only those housing systems and management practices that meet animals’ physiological and psychological needs, provide for the Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare, and provide the animals with a good quality of life.
Humane Canada advocates the elimination of all farming practices that cause stress or suffering to animals and encourages practices that provide opportunities for animals to enjoy positive experiences and express behaviours that promote their well-being, including access to the outdoors when it is safe and the climate allows. Humane Canada encourages farmers to consider and use the Five Domains Model for Assessing Animal Welfare1.
Humane Canada believes that farmed animal welfare can be improved through humane farming, transport and slaughter methods. Humane Canada supports the application of food labelling that enables consumers to choose humane animal products. Any labelling system must include third-party verification. Humane Canada reminds producers to consult the relevant National Farm Animal Care Council (NFACC) Codes of Practice, referenced in animal protection legislation in several provinces, for requirements and recommendations regarding farming practices.
Humane Canada is opposed to any farming practices that lead to injury, stress or any form of suffering in farmed animals. This includes the following:
- Raising animals of any species at high stocking densities which compromise animal welfare, or raising social species in isolation;
- Breeding and/or genetic manipulation of animals of any species to accentuate certain physical or behavioural characteristics when the outcome compromises animal welfare;
- Housing any animal in an environment with flooring, lack of bedding, penning/fencing or caging that might lead to injury; with poor ventilation, inadequate temperature control or lighting; or with poor sanitation;
- Housing any animal in an environment that does not allow the expression of natural behaviours that promote well-being;
- Feeding diets that are inappropriate for the species or the animal’s stage of production and may compromise welfare;
- Extended periods of feed and/or water withdrawal, such as before and during transport;
- Use of pharmaceuticals for non-therapeutic treatment or to support animal husbandry systems that compromise animal health or welfare;
- Painful procedures that are performed without adequate pain control and without the guidance of a veterinarian;
- Unnecessary procedures performed only for convenience when they have a negative effect on the welfare of the animal;
- Stressful or painful animal handling methods, including improper and inhumane use of physical and electrical devices.
It therefore follows that specific practices to which Humane Canada is opposed include the following:
- Confining egg-laying hens in cages that do not allow the expression of natural behaviours that promote well-being (e.g., nesting, dustbathing, scratching and roosting);
- Raising veal calves in isolation;
- Raising veal calves in individual crates or keeping them continuously tethered so as to restrict freedom of movement;
- Keeping dairy cows continuously tethered in stalls without daily periods of exercise;
- Keeping sows tethered or in crates/stalls;
- Tail-docking, tooth-clipping, de-horning, de-beaking or castration of animals without anesthesia and/or pain control;
- Force-feeding waterfowl to produce foie gras.
1 From: Mellor, D.J. and Beausoleil, N.J. (2015). Extending the ‘Five Domains’ model for animal welfare assessment to incorporate positive welfare states. Animal Welfare 24: 241-253.
Farming of Wild Species
Humane Canada believes wild animals should live freely in their natural habitat and therefore is opposed to the farming of wild species (also known as game farming and game ranching).
The farming of wild species involves the raising of native and non-native animals for a variety of products, including meat, hides, feathers and antlers. Wild species being farmed in Canada include: deer, elk, caribou, reindeer, moose, bison, emus, ostriches, and game birds, such as pheasants. In contrast to major livestock species which have been selectively bred over hundreds of generations, wild animals are not genetically or behaviourally adapted to being handled and raised by humans.
As is the case for any farmed species, Humane Canada considers acceptable only those housing systems and management practices that meet animals’ physiological and psychological needs, provide for the Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare, and provide the animals with a good quality of life.
A number of concerns particular to wild species include:
- Confining wild animals;
- Keeping wild animals at unnatural stocking densities;
- Keeping wild animals in habitats to which they have not been adapted and that deprive them of the ability to express natural species-specific behaviours that promote their well-being;
- Handling and restraint, as wild animals are not adapted to human contact;
- Use of handling equipment and techniques that are not appropriate to the species, resulting in increased stress and risk of injury;
- Painful practices, including de-antlering1 and de-horning. These procedures cause significant pain and deprive animals of the opportunity to gather sensory information and express natural, species-specific behaviours. They must not be routinely undertaken for the convenience of producers. If deemed medically necessary, such procedures must be performed with adequate pain control and veterinary oversight.
- Transportation between sites or for slaughter, which poses even greater risk of stress, injury and mortality than transporting domesticated livestock. Transporting animals between regions may also increase risk of spreading disease to wild populations. Notwithstanding our overall position, if farmed wild species are to be slaughtered, Humane Canada recommends they be killed humanely where they are raised.
Humane Canada opposes the importation of non-native wild animals, as this activity poses health and welfare risks to those animals being imported and may pose risks to native wildlife and their habitats, domesticated animals, and humans.
Humane Canada is also concerned that farming of wild species may create an incentive for poaching of these species, including those already threatened or endangered, due to an increase in market demand or availability.
Please refer to the Humane Canada position statement on Farmed Animal Welfare. Due to the linkage between the practices of game farming and penned hunting, see also the position statement on Hunting for additional information related to animal hunts in which the target animal is confined.
1 De-antlering is the annual process of cutting off the antlers of restrained cervid males, such as deer and elk, for their velvet. Velvet antlers consist of highly sensitive and vascularized tissue.
Humane Canada is opposed to the raising and killing of animals explicitly for the purposes of fur production, due to the pain and suffering involved. While fur farming is currently a legal activity in Canada, Humane Canada holds that it should be prohibited.
The UK was the first country to ban fur farming in 2000. Subsequently, many countries have completely banned this activity and several other countries have banned fur imports, imposed partial bans or enacted more vigorous welfare regulations on fur farms. In November 2021, British Columbia became the first Canadian jurisdiction to ban mink farming.
Alternatives to animal fur, such as faux fur, are now widely available and increasingly being used, due to consumer concerns about animal welfare.
While fur farming remains a legal activity, farm conditions and practices must adequately provide for the animals’ needs in keeping with the nature of the species and must ensure the animals have a good quality of life throughout all stages of production.
The methods of killing must be humane and appropriate to the species, in all cases resulting in instant and irreversible unconsciousness without pain, fear or suffering, and rapid death. Humane Canada considers some methods currently used by the fur farming industry (including carbon dioxide, filtered carbon monoxide and electrocution) to be unacceptable (see AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: (2020 Edition)). These methods are often aversive to the animals, causing serious pain and suffering. In some cases, there are significant challenges in ensuring the availability of appropriate equipment and competent, well-trained staff.
Please refer to the Humane Canada position statements on Farmed Animal Welfare and Humane Killing, Including Euthanasia and Slaughter of Farmed Animals, which provide general principles that also apply to fur farming.
Whereas genetic engineering has profound effects on humans, animals, plants and the environment:
- Humane Canada is deeply concerned about the rapid increase in the ability to manipulate living organisms through genetic engineering, and its concomitant ethical implications;
- Humane Canada believes that genetic manipulation denies the intrinsic value, nature and meaning of each species of living thing and is therefore strongly opposed to the manipulation and patenting of such animals;
- Humane Canada supports stringent regulatory controls on the biotechnology industry and urgently seeks national and international debate by government, industry, animal protection organizations and the public on the ethical, environmental, economic and social implications of genetic engineering.
Humane Killing, Including Euthanasia and Slaughter of Farmed Animals
Humane Canada holds that the methods used to kill any animal must be humane. Humane Canada defines a humane death as one that occurs when animals are killed in a manner whereby they die instantly without panic or pain, or whereby they are rendered irreversibly unconscious until death ensues.
A humane death also means the handling methods, equipment and facilities used must be appropriate to the species and condition of the animal, and animal fear, pain and anxiety are kept to absolutely minimal levels prior to and during killing.
Though slaughter-without-stunning is currently allowed in Canada under certain circumstances, Humane Canada is opposed to the practice, as it causes avoidable pain.
Humane Canada recognizes that farmed animals are slaughtered in Canada for food and believes it must be done humanely. In order to minimize animal stress and ensure accurate and effective stunning, any slaughter facility must be designed to facilitate calm handling and effective and appropriate restraint of the species being killed. Employees handling live animals must be trained in low-stress animal handling techniques and must never physically or psychologically abuse an animal.
Humane Canada urges federal, provincial, and territorial governments to develop effective and consistent standards and regulations for the oversight of humane slaughter in their jurisdictions, including enforcement. Further, Humane Canada encourages industry to ensure consistency in humane slaughter practices by developing operating standards through closely monitored national animal welfare programs. Humane Canada urges federal and provincial enforcement agencies to increase the transparency and reporting of information on the welfare of animals at slaughter by publishing anonymized information on the methods of slaughter used, inspection and enforcement activity, and annual surveys of compliance by regulated establishments. Humane Canada promotes the use by slaughter plants of independent third-party video surveillance and auditing of animals during unloading, handling, lairage and slaughter.
Humane Canada recognizes that horses are slaughtered in Canada for the meat market. In order for horse slaughter to be considered humane, slaughter plants and government regulators must provide evidence that the facilities and methods used are appropriate for horses.
1. Marine Mammal Protection
Humane Canada opposes any confinement of animals that causes them physical or mental pain or suffering, or fails to meet their health, behavioural and environmental needs.
Humane Canada believes the capture and confinement of marine mammals does not meet these needs and accordingly causes them to suffer. Humane Canada is working to prevent the capture of these animals for exhibition in aquaria and similar public displays.
Humane Canada supports all steps, including the passage of appropriate legislation, which afford greater protection for marine mammals in their natural habitat.
Humane Canada supports and encourages public education about marine mammals, provided such efforts do not involve removing these animals from, or disturbing them in, their natural environment or family groups.
2. Protection of Marine Environment
Humane Canada supports and encourages efforts, both domestically and internationally, to eliminate the discarding and loss at sea of netting and non-biodegradable materials. Humane Canada supports and encourages modifications to fishing gear which will reduce the hazard to marine life caused by lost nets.
3. Marine Mammal Harassment
Humane Canada recognizes and supports the activity of watching whales, including dolphins and other marine mammals in their natural habitat. Such observation develops understanding and concern for these highly developed creatures.
Humane Canada also recognizes the potential threat of harassment from excessive or uncontrolled marine mammal watching. Where appropriate, Humane Canada promotes land-based whale watching as an alternative to ocean going tours.
Humane Canada supports the development of regulations, guidelines, and codes of conduct for the observation of marine mammals, as well as public education on behaviours of these species and their sensitivity to disturbance.
Humane Canada supports the creation of marine life sanctuaries wherein no activity (such as commercial activity, harvesting, tours, sport fishing, recreational boating) is allowed. Such sanctuaries would provide marine mammals and other aquatic life with places which preclude activities detrimental to such life.
4. Commercial Seal Hunt
Humane Canada is opposed to the commercial hunting of seals because it is impossible to ensure humane killing due to the methods used and the unstable environment in which the killing is performed.
The standard methods of killing seals, by hakapik or rifle, have not been proven to consistently result in a quick death with minimal suffering. Videotape observations collected by seal hunt observers indicate that between 7% and 30% (Daoust et al and IFAW, respectively) of attempts to kill seals by shooting and clubbing were not successful in achieving unconsciousness on the first attempt. Humane Canada considers this to be an unacceptable margin of error. Furthermore, Humane Canada has concerns regarding the suffering of seals not killed instantly on the first shot by a firearm. Some of the seals that are not killed on the first shot escape into the water and die painfully from their injuries.
The killing of the animals happens on floating ice pans in the ocean which creates a highly mobile and unpredictable environment unlike a slaughterhouse, where the environment can be controlled and monitored. When rifles are shot from moving boats at escaping seals or when the animals are chased across moving ice pans it is unlikely a seal will be stunned effectively with a single blow or shot – a necessary measure of humane slaughter.
Medically Unnecessary Procedures
Humane Canada is opposed to the alteration of companion animals by surgical or other invasive methods for cosmetic reasons, competitive reasons or behavioural reasons. This does not include procedures performed by a licenced veterinarian to alleviate suffering or to improve welfare.
Such procedures do not benefit the animal and are detrimental to the animal’s health and welfare. As with any surgery, these procedures also expose the animal to the risk of anaesthetic and possible complications. Examples of procedures include:
- tail alternations (canine or equine)
- ear cropping
- cosmetic piercing, dentistry and tattooing
- debarking (devocalization)
- declawing (partial digital amputation)
Humane Canada encourages breed associations to change their breed standards so that cosmetic procedures are not required.
Spaying and neutering, as well as permanent identification (using the recommended least invasive method) for the purpose of returning lost animals to their guardians, are exempted from this position due to the associated welfare benefits to individual animals and overall community animal management.
Partial digital amputation (also known as declawing) is the surgical removal of the third phalanx of each digit. Non-therapeutic PDA is generally performed for the convenience of the owner; however, declawing cats can result in unnecessary and avoidable acute and chronic pain and adverse behavioural effects. It is the responsibility of cat owners to become educated on the subject of declawing and its
Humane Canada supports the proper identification of all companion animals with visible methods such as licenses or tags, as well as permanent identification such as microchips or humanely applied tattoos. Humane Canada supports microchipping as the preferred method of permanent identification.
Lack of proper and up to date identification prevents the majority of companion animals from being reunited with their owners. Identification of companion animals is a necessary requirement for the successful return of lost companion animals. Humane Canada recommends that the implantation of microchips only be carried out by veterinarians or persons trained in the procedure and knowledgeable about this system of identification. Humane Canada supports ISO technology for microchips as established by the National Companion Animal Coalition.
Selective Breeding of Companion Animals
Humane Canada is opposed to the selective breeding of companion animals that compromises their welfare and that of their progeny. Only animals of sound structure without known health or other
disorders and of a temperament suited to human companionship and appropriate to their intended lifestyle should be chosen for breeding.
In particular, Humane Canada is opposed to selection for changes in body form or function, behaviour, or temperament that are detrimental to the health or quality of life of the resulting offspring.
Humane Canada supports the breeding of companion animals only when it is undertaken by those who are committed to providing a high level of care and to supporting their animals’ physical and psychological well-being.
Humane Canada supports the updating of breed standards to remove conformations that lead to inherent welfare problems.
Animals with detrimental genetic traits or known predispositions should not be bred as they can pass these on to their progeny. Breeding individuals with such traits or predispositions has the potential to affect multiple generations and, thus, a large number of animals.
Examples of disability and disease associated with certain conformations in breed standards include, but are not limited to:
- Breathing difficulties and eye problems in brachycephalic (short nosed) breeds, such as bulldogs, Boston terriers and pugs;
- Joint disorders, such as hip dysplasia in German shepherds, golden retrievers, Labrador retrievers, rottweilers, Saint Bernards and other giant breed dogs;
- Skeletal and joint disorders, such as chondrodystrophy in many dog breeds characterized by shortened legs (e.g. basset hounds, dachschunds, corgis, bulldogs, Pekineses) and in Munchkin cats;
- Spinal problems in Manx cats;
- Skin problems in Shar-Peis due to deep wrinkling of the skin and in hairless sphynx cats and Chinese crested dogs who are prone to sunburn;
- Birthing difficulties in bulldogs and some other breeds due to the desired large chest and head;
- Dental malocclusion in some dog and cat breeds.
Sources for Acquiring a Pet
Humane Canada supports the responsible sourcing of companion animals to discourage welfare issues that can arise as a result of substandard breeding practices or through animal sales, which have little regard for the welfare of animals.
Humane Canada opposes the sale of animals in pet stores. Instead, Humane Canada encourages pet stores to partner with animal welfare organizations to have cats and dogs available for adoption at a satellite adoption centre (see definition) at the store. Humane Canada equally opposes the sale of animals through exclusive use of the internet, without in-person interactions between the animals’
breeder/current owner, the prospective new owner and the animals themselves.
To comprehensively address the serious and clandestine issue of substandard breeding operations, Humane Canada supports the implementation of a preventive government regime overseeing the breeding, transport, housing and sale of companion animals, including those incorporating mandatory inspection and licensing of companion animal establishments, including suppliers, breeders, and stores.
Humane Canada advocates adoption from local humane societies, SPCAs, animal shelters and rescue organizations that meet standards of care for companion animals. In particular, all companion dog and cat facilities should abide by the CVMA Code of Practice for Kennel Operations (3rd edition, 2018), and the CVMA Code of Practice for Cattery Operations (2009), respectively, as the standards for care and management. Humane Canada also accepts the acquisition of animals from responsible breeders (see definition). Humane Canada condemns the mass breeding of companion animals for commercial sale and urges the public to learn how to recognize and avoid substandard breeding operations (see definition). Such operations subject animals to suffering caused by conditions such as overcrowding; inadequate shelter, sanitation, food, water and veterinary care; long term confinement; and lack of socialization or enrichment. All substandard breeding operations should be reported to local animal cruelty protection agencies.
Substandard breeding operations may be homes, farms, or other facilities where people collect and breed dogs and cats. Beyond the serious welfare concerns for the breeding animals, these conditions often result in poor socialization, leading to behavioural problems, and poor health that may persist throughout the lifetimes of the animals that are born. Indiscriminate breeding can lead to additional hereditary health and behaviour problems.
The sale of animals in pet stores and through the internet can be problematic for many reasons. The source of these animals may be substandard breeding operators or brokers thereof. Purchasing such animals perpetuates the demand for this trade and the continuation of unethical practices.
Transportation, particularly at a young age, and confinement can compromise an animal’s welfare. Sale in stores or on the internet promotes impulse buying, with prospective new owners not doing enough research on the needs of the species and breed, or on responsible ownership. In addition, these sources are not likely to provide sufficient information about individual animals’ requirements and temperaments. Humane Canada urges those considering acquiring any companion animal to do their research.
Substandard breeding operations
Substandard commercial dog and cat breeding operations, which sell purebred or mixed breed animals in high volumes to unsuspecting buyers, share common characteristics:
- Substandard health and/or environmental issues;
- Substandard animal care, treatment and/or socialization;
- Substandard breeding practices that lead to genetic defects or hereditary disorders;
- Erroneous or falsified certificates of registration, pedigrees and/or genetic background.
Note: Some substandard breeding operations are commonly referred to as “puppy mills”. The above conditions may also exist in small volume or single-breed establishments. Humane Canada believes these characteristics would be similar for rabbits, hamsters, birds or any other mass-produced animal.
Responsible breeders are individuals who focus their efforts on one or a select few breeds and who have become knowledgeable about the breeds’ health, heritable defects, temperament and behaviour. This knowledge may have come from breeding, showing, raising, and training animals of these breeds, as well as historical research and ongoing study, mentoring relationships, and club memberships. Responsible breeders are well placed to educate and screen potential buyers/adopters and provide follow-up support after purchase/adoption. Responsible breeders take a lifetime responsibility for the animals they have bred. Responsible / ethical breeders place a priority on:
- The health and well-being of the breeding pair.
- The short- and long-term well-being of the offspring.
- The overall dog or cat population to which they will be adding.
Satellite Adoption Centre
A satellite adoption centre is a pet store or other location that does not sell cats and dogs, but instead partners with an animal sheltering or rescue organization to house and adopt out cats and dogs directly at the store. The store provides for the housing and welfare needs of the animals. In addition, all animals receive appropriate veterinary care, and all dogs, cats and rabbits are sterilized prior to sale. Interested adopters must be approved under the same adoption screening process that the organization has in place for all animals adopted from them directly.
Humane Canada believes that all organizations involved in the sale or adoption of dogs, cats and rabbits should incorporate a spay/neuter program. Humane Canada supports early-age spay/neuter for dogs and cats in the care of an animal shelter. Every effort should be made to have the procedure occur prior to sale or adoption (unless medically contraindicated).
Neutering, including spaying or castrating, commonly known as spay/neuter, is an essential component of responsible companion animal ownership and one of the most important aspects of reducing companion animal overpopulation by preventing the birth of unwanted offspring. It also carries behavioural and health benefits for dogs and cats, including the reduction of sexual behaviours (marking, aggression, roaming, etc.) as well as a reduction in the risk of some diseases (pyometra, cancers, prostatic diseases).
Humane Canada supports subsidized or low-cost, and high-quality, high-volume sterilization programs to promote the goal of reduction of companion animal overpopulation and animal suffering. Performing pre-pubertal procedures allows animal welfare organizations to prevent excess litters by ensuring animals are neutered before adoption, thereby combating further overpopulation and reducing the need to euthanize unwanted animals.
Where trapping is carried out for any reason, Humane Canada accepts only the use of trapping devices that cause prompt irreversible loss of consciousness leading to death, or cage/box-type traps which work on the principle of live capture that causes the least pain, suffering, stress or injury to the trapped animal. Humane Canada opposes restraining traps that are designed to hold an animal by a limb or other body part. Only the most humane trap for a particular species should be used.
Humane Canada acknowledges the Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS) for specific fur-bearing species, and encourages its application, enforcement and continued improvement. Trapping of all species not included in the AIHTS, as a minimum, should be subject to the same trapping criteria. The AIHTS and the ISO Standards for Killing and Restraining Traps must be upgraded every five years to reflect improved criteria applicable to humane trapping devices and sets.
Humane Canada acknowledges that animals — wild or domestic — are trapped for a number of reasons, including for their fur, to control animals in conflict with humans (including an activity commonly referred to as “pest control”) and as a population management strategy.
Notwithstanding the improvements resulting from the application of AIHTS and ISO trapping criteria, many trapped animals will continue to suffer from injury, pain, trauma and suffering in existing restraining and killing traps, reflecting the need for concerted efforts to develop and implement the use of improved and species-specific killing traps that cause instant death or rapid, irreversible loss of consciousness and insensibility before death.
Humane Canada urges trapping organizations and government officials in Canada to:
- Exercise responsible leadership and to enact and enforce all appropriate humane trapping legislation, regulations and Trappers’ Code of Ethics;
- Provide comprehensive education of new trappers in humane trapping practices, and to provide regular mandatory upgrading programs.
Additionally, we recommend these requirements:
- set traps be inspected at least once every 24 hours, and at least once every 6 hours in urbanized areas between dawn and dusk;
- only cage/box-type traps be used within 1,000 meters of a residence in urbanized areas;
- all persons commercially engaged in the resolution of human/wildlife conflict concerns be licensed and be required to complete appropriate educational requirements equivalent to those applicable to licensed trappers;
- all traps, except cage/box-type traps and instant-kill rodent traps, only be available from authorized outlets to licenced trappers;
- the sale and use of glue boards or similar devices be prohibited;
- the sale of restraining traps be gradually phased out as killing traps to replace them are developed and approved;
- clear instructions be provided with all traps explaining legal requirements, proper setting, use, location, environmental predator protection, visitation periods and release or dispatch of trapped animals;
- trappers regularly check and maintain their traps in good working order to ensure proper functioning and to minimize injury to animals in the traps.
Resources should be provided to develop and test traps that:
- improve the welfare of trapped animals, particularly of animals captured in “restraining traps”, taking into account adequate standards of care, such as shelter and water for animals in live traps;
- will replace live-holding traps (which are not cage or box-type traps) with traps that produce instant death or rapid onset of irreversible loss of consciousness leading to death;
- minimize the capture of non-targeted species;
- provide for user safety.
Humane Canada supports all steps, including the passage of appropriate legislation, which afford a greater degree of protection for wild animals and their habitat, and reduce the infliction of pain and suffering upon them. Humane Canada deplores inordinate destruction of wildlife habitat and ecosystems, as well as pollution of the environment.
Humane Canada is opposed to the use of controlling agents that cause animal suffering (e.g., poisons, chemical agents, certain traps, etc.), and accepts only those methods of capture or killing which cause minimal pain, suffering or distress to the animals.
Humane Canada supports wildlife management systems designed to maintain sustainable wildlife populations.
Humane Canada accepts the hunting of non-endangered or threatened wild animals only if carried out in a humane, responsible and sustainable manner by qualified and experienced hunters, abiding by applicable laws and regulations, and with minimal infliction of pain, suffering or distress. Humane Canada believes hunting should only be carried out for the purposes of individual consumption or well-reasoned purposes.
Humane Canada strongly opposes any animal hunt in which the target animal is confined or tame or in which the hunter fires on an animal with a remotely-controlled device.
In addition, Humane Canada is opposed to the use of lead shot, since the spent pellets are likely to be ingested by waterfowl and raptors, resulting in acute and chronic lead poisoning. Humane Canada also opposes the hunting of animals with dogs where the dogs are used to harass wild animals.
Humane Canada encourages the implementation of stringent regulations for hunting, including mandatory training, a minimum age in line with firearms regulations, proper storage of weapons and other provisions. Humane Canada also advocates the conservation of wildlife habitat and the implementation of special measures to preserve species that are endangered, threatened or rare.
Penned or “canned” hunting involves stocking a confined area with animals for the purpose of being shot by hunters. The animals have no chance of escape and may be tame. Furthermore, penned hunts may use exotic animals that can present ecological and disease risks to native wildlife.
Internet hunting allows hunters to track and shoot animals remotely, by way of a camera and rifle controlled by computer.
3. Trade in Wildlife Parts
Humane Canada opposes and seeks to eliminate the trade in wildlife parts due to the individual animal suffering, the threat to species and to established populations.
The trade in wildlife parts is occurring around the world for products such as remedies, charms, trinkets and trophies. Such trade encourages the indiscriminate slaughter of wildlife; invites illegal trafficking in endangered species; risks inhumane consequences including the slow death of orphaned offspring; and results in wide-spread poaching.
Humane Canada supports the establishment and enforcement of legislation prohibiting the trade or possession of wildlife parts, such as bear gall bladders and paws, elephant tusks and seal penises. Humane Canada also encourages the education of consumers about the suffering caused by the trade in wildlife parts.
Please refer to the Humane Canada position statement on Farming of Wild Species.
Wild or Exotic Animals as Pets
Humane Canada is opposed to the importing, selling, trafficking, breeding, taming and keeping of wild or exotic animals, including their hybrids, as pets. Humane Canada is also opposed to surgical procedures designed to make an exotic animal into a safer companion.
A wild or exotic animal is any animal, native or non-native to Canada, that has not been subject to domestication through many generations of selective and controlled breeding and hence not adapted to living in close association with humans.
Wild or exotic animals are often acquired without full knowledge of their health, welfare and behavioural needs, including specific physiological, nutritional, psychological, social, environmental, behavioural and exercise requirements. Many of these needs cannot be met when these animals are kept as pets.
Non-domesticated animal species are potentially dangerous because of their normal defense mechanisms. Some exotic animal owners may try to modify the animals in an attempt to make them safer, causing short and long term physical and mental stress to the animals.
The trading, breeding, taming or keeping of wild or exotic animals as pets may cause suffering and death of the animals during the capture and transportation process and through abandonment and/or improper care. The sourcing of these animals can perpetuate illegal trade and extinction of species in their natural habitats. The escape, release or abandonment of wild or exotic animals may also threaten animal and human health as well as the viability of native wildlife.
Humane Canada is deeply concerned about the moral and humane implications of xenografting, which is the transplanting of body parts between species. Humane Canada strongly advocates the promotion of other alternatives over the development of animal donor programs.
Humane Canada has grave concerns about xenografting. However, Humane Canada recognizes that the practice of xenografting is ongoing. Therefore, to ensure the physical, social and psychological well-being of these animals, Humane Canada insists that they be provided with at least the following:
- Appropriate food, water, housing and veterinary care to meet the species’ biological requirements;
- Appropriate levels of environmental complexity necessary to prevent deprivation, boredom or fear.
When animals are killed, Humane Canada accepts only those methods and procedures that cause minimal distress to the animals.